The vacuum heated desiccator's sole purpose is to simultaneously dry multiple core samples in a vacuum at temperatures reaching 80°C. A total humidity removal inside rock specimens is crucial before certain studies, e.g. gas permeability or porosity measurements. The system includes a heated desiccator and a vacuum pump. The main components of the portable oven are a machined stainless steel heating plate (Option: Heating plate with Teflon coating) and a glass bell, designed to withstand the internal and external pressure difference. The sealing is secured by a Viton O-ring between the heating plate and the bell. A small volume and compact design guarantee a fast heating process. A small volume and compact design guarantee a fast heating process. The portable vacuum oven is safe, user-friendly, and extremely durable. Rapid and efficient drying and total visibility on the product to be dried are most important Vaccum Heated Desiccator benefits.
The Pyro-GC analyser is used to perform detailed analysis (finger print) on high potential sample selected through the screening methods such as the Rock Eval analysis. It also allows the chromatography of crude oils and bitumen. Correlations between the crude oils and source rocks can be determined by comparing the chromatograms of the oil sample to the pyrograms issued from source rock and heavy compounds (asphaltens). The pyrograms of the thermovaporizable and pyrolysable compounds from source rocks or reservoir rocks can be obtained without pre-treatment of the samples. The GC unit is composed of a special Programmed-Temperature Vaporiser (PTV) injector that can perform pyrolysis on bulk sample, a cold trap using liquid nitrogen placed at the column head to ensure a good introduction of the thermovaporizable compound, a split injector for oil sample, two capillary columns and two Flame Ionisation Detectors (FID).
Vitrinite Reflectance (VR) is the most commonly used organic maturation indicator used in the petroleum industry. This is mainly because it is accurate, quick, non-destructive and inexpensive. On the other hand, because vitrinite is not strongly prone to oil and gas formation is common as a residue in source rocks. Measurment of vitrinite reflectance in PGGRC done with Zeiss Axioplan 2 microscope. The Zeiss Axioplan 2 is a high-end imaging platform for complex research. It is optimized for light transmission and extremely high contrast fluorescence imaging. This complete system comes fully configured for ideal performance, range and functionality.
A Soxhlet extractor is a piece of laboratory apparatus invented in 1879 by Franz von Soxhlet. It was originally designed for the extraction of a lipid from a solid material. Typically, a Soxhlet extraction is used when the desired compound has a limited solubility in a solvent, and the impurity is insoluble in that solvent. It allows for unmonitored and unmanaged operation while efficiently recycling a small amount of solvent to dissolve a larger amount of material. In geochemical analyses, soxhlet is used for extraction of bitumen from organic matter.
Kerogenatron is designed for pure kerogen extraction and mineral destruction by acidification. It is a fully assembled free standing unit, simply needing to be connected to power, tap water, and sewage system. It includes its own neutralisation system and 4 reactors but also water purification system, water heater, fume hood and a fume extraction fan special for acid fume extraction. In order to minimize the acid handling, an automatic version can be proposed in which acids are injected through an automatic perilstatic pump. Physical and chemical studies of isolated organic matter such as elemental analysis; I.R., U.V. and NMR spectrometry; pyrolysis and pyro-chromatography techniques, Rock-Eval and activation energies distribution studies without matrix effect and optical studies such as transmission, vitrinite reflectance, Fluorescence, polynofacies examination are most important applications of kerogenatron.
Rock Eval pyrolysis is a source rock screening tool that measures the concentration of volatile hydrocarbons (S1) and convertibility of non-volatile organic material to oil and gas (S2), and estimates the thermal maturity of the rock samples (Tmax). Analysis is performed on the powdered rock samples heated at a predetermined rate. So, the quantity of evolved hydrocarbons and CO2 are monitored as a function of increasing temperature. From the S1, S2, S3, Tmax and TOC content, various ratios are calculated which suggest the type of hydrocarbons a source rock may be capable of generating. This provides an estimate of the maturity and kerogen type that can identify the presence of hydrocarbon shows in the reservoir intervals. PGGRC equipped with the latest version of the Rock-Eval product line, i.e. the Rock-Eval 6, enables the determination of Rock-Eval parameters plus TOC and MinC as it is equipped with an oven for combustion of the rock residue after pyrolysis, FID detector measures the H/C gas released during the pyrolysis and on-line infrared cell is used to measure the quantity of CO and CO2 generated during pyrolysis and oxidation of samples. A new integrated software (Rocksix), supervises the analyser and allows an easy interpretation of the data.
The S2 analyser has been specifically designed to perform preparative pyrolysis for such detail kerogen studies. The pure organic matter or kerogen is deposited in a small boat carved gold rod and introduced in the first part of the oven. A preliminary heating at 60°C for 2 min to get rid of air and the sample is introduced in the oven itself. The oven temperature is first balistically raised to the temperature of thermo-vaporization to eliminate residual light hydrocarbons and water (at 300°C during 3 min) and then the pyrolysis began up to 550 °C with the desired temperature ramp (typically 25°C/min). Outside of the pyrolysis zone, the effluents are condensed with the carrier gas in the trap cooled by liquid nitrogen. When pyrolysis is completed, the trap is disconnected, removed from the liquid nitrogen and allowed to heat slowly. Argon vaporizes and flows out of the trap. The pyrolysate is then dissolved in an appropriate solvent for further analysis.
PGGRC provides an extensive range of gas chromatography testing services. The Petrolab test a diverse range of materials and products using various detectors for gas chromatography, including selective and highly sensitive detection of trace and molecular species specific compounds. The range of GC detectors available combined with expertise from senior laboratory staff ensure first rank analytical services. From routine to advanced analysis and testing, petroleum laboratory of PGGRC is one of the world leaders in gas chromatography analysis capabilities. Gas chromatographic analysis of oils is used to determine alteration in the reservoir e.g. biodegradation, water washing; the estimation of maturity e.g. thermal condensate or oil; the type of kerogen sourcing the oil e.g. marine, terrestrial, lacustrine. Some of the GC detectors utilized include: Flame Ionization Detection, (GC/FID, GC-FID). An FID GC detector uses a hydrogen / air flame and a collector plate. The resulting ions are detected and measured. The GC/FID offers sensitive analysis within a large dynamic range. The flame photometric detector (FPD) measures sulfur and phosphorus containing compounds, measuring chemiluminescent reactions from these compounds in a hydrogen / air flame.